The menstrual cycle is the woman’s bodily preparation for pregnancy. During the beginning of the menstrual cycle, an egg is developed in the ovaries, and the lining of the uterus grows. About halfway through the cycle, the egg emerges from the ovary – this is referred to as ovulation. For the rest of the menstrual cycle, the egg travels down a fallopian tube. If it is fertilized, then it will develop into a fetus; if not, it will be absorbed back into the body or dissolve. Afterwards, the uterine lining is passed out of the body through the vagina.

Menstrual problems, such as the absence of periods (amenorrhea), overly painful periods (dysmenorrheal), excessively heavy or long periods (menorrhagia), and excessively light or infrequent periods (oligomenorrhea), should be treated by a medical professional, as many effective treatment methods exist for these conditions.